Tornjak (lat. Canis montanus) is shepard dog with origin country of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and dominant region of breed is wide region of Vlasic (central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina).
Name Tornjak comes from the word “tor” which means a fenced space for keeping sheep in open mountain slopes. This breed lives here for thousand years now, which can be found in written documents. Chronologists have registered this dog ten centuries ago, under the name of Kanis montanus – mountain dog, but people of these regions know it as Tornjak. Tornjak has been registered on 09th of May, 1981 under the name of “Bosnia-Herzegovina’s shepard dog – tornjak”. Birthcard has been openned from then on. A commission with kinological judges was formed with a goal to finish expert jobs for standardization of the breed and its registration with FCI as a new autonomous dog breed under this name. This standard was made and finilized on 05th of October, 1990. in Travnik.
There are only few recognized breeds of dogs with such old and accurate information about their existence, form, height, color and purpose, as is the case with Tornjak. He has long resisted the influence of all other breeds with whom he came into living contact. Neither the men nor their contacts with other dogs failed to significantly change its appearance, the nature and quality of work. Is likely caused by old Slavs in this region from their great-origins. According to scientific research, it is almost indisputable that his ancestors originated from the Tibetan mastiff, or areas of today’s Iran. Ecological conditions of Tornjak’s residence (harsh continental mountain climate in the range of wolves and bears and the need for his master), created the dog physically healthy and strong, modest demands for accommodation and food of a skilled guard.
Tornjak is a noble, strong, harmonious and strong dog, almost square, good looks, which gives it a multi-colored or two-tone thick and long hair, typically worn with ornate tail. The head, ears, front legs and paws are covered with hair short, right and thick hair, while the neck has a distinctive mane. Hull and back of the legs and tail hairs are long and hardright coat with dense undercoat. The hair should not be shorter than 9 cm, and the longerit is desirable, particularly the neck and mane of “flags” on the legs and tail.
Tornjak can be partly-colored (variegated), trichromatic and dichromatic. Most attractive are multicolored dogs, and all variants of a particular price are those with sharper colors. Its characteristic is brighter than the color of the hull cheek. It is desirable, too,and coloured line in the middle of the head. Mixed colors are allowed, while two-coloring is not allowed. The height of males at the withers is 60 cm and above, while the females 56 cm and upwards. Hull length is not more than 8% higher than the height of males and10 % greater in females. Breast height is about 45% of height at the withers, and are permitted and deeper chest. Tornjak is poised dog, good-natured towards people, cautiously aggressive with other dogs and animals attackers to master, house, corraland herd. Diligent in performing tasks, easily understood and easy to master will accept the training, you may not even need to be made, because most farmers, who have years of experience with this dog will tell you that tornjak dog that is taught, not trained.
Main characteristics Tornjak is poised dog, good-natured to people (because of the many conquerors sharpattack dogs are killed), cautiously aggressive with the beasts of the attackers in a home, corral, sheep or master. Diligent in performing tasks, easily understood and the training command master, incorruptible and distrustful of strangers, is highly resistant to disease. Modest requirements in the food and accommodation (in a snowy night remains to lie in the snow, often getting covered). Genetic is a very dominant. His body is very strong and balanced, moves easily and almost dignified. Part of the face (at least the top of the muzzle) is always brighter than the dark markings on the body.
The eye-view is unique, clever, cocky, serious and quiet. With hair from the undercoat rich and so complex that protects against all weather conditions. The tail is hairy and held high like a flag.
Tornjak’s muzzle is blunt wedge-shaped and often divaricated although there are other types of heads. In dogs aged over four years is a pincer bite muzzle, and younger one has it completed and scissor-shaped. The eyes are almond shaped, brown to dark. Earlobes are very mobile, and ikn movement they throw them backwards so that the external auditory opening – the channel remains uncovered (indigenous features). In standby mode, the dog ears are usually close to the head, and this tolerance is not more than 1 cm. Ears are moderately long, triangular and covered with shorter hair. Crossing the door in the hull is almost imperceptible. Hull and back are properly constructed, while croup slightly sloping and well muscled. The chest is strong and loose-fitting, and long hair gives bigger breasts than they really are. The coat is typical of the neck because it forms a mane. Its tail is especially characteristic and hairy, which is carried over its backline. This tail is partly caused by work done by tornjak (storing and holding together the flock of sheep), because it indicates where the dog or bitch is in the herd, and besides that this kind of tail is a characteristic of dominance over other dogs that are in the same flock of sheep.
The average height of the crest of adult males is 65 – 70 cm, and females 58-65 cm, the average chest circumference in adult males is 88-92 cm and females 73-77 cm. The average length of the trunk in adult males is 72-75 cm and females 63-67 cm, volume of the left metacarpus in adult males is 14-16 cm and females 11-13 cm. The average body weight of adult males is 35 – 50 kg, and females 28-40 cm.