Bosnia and Herzegowina

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Capital: Sarajevo.
Area: 52.280 km2
Population: 4.354.911 (1991)
Official languages: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian.
Monetary unit: Convertible Mark (KM).

Population distribution: Urban: 29.8%/ Semiurban: 24.20% /Rural: 45.92%
Ethnic/cultural composition: Bosniaks 48 %, Serbs 37.1 %, Croats 14.3 %, other 0.6%.
Religion: Muslim 41%, Orthodox 34%, Catholic 15%, others 10%.
Human Development Index: Position no. 62 of 177
Annual population growth rate: -0.2 % (2004)
Fertility rate: 1,3 (2000-05)
Life expectancy: 74,1 years. (2000-05)
Child mortality: 9.58 per thousand inhabitants.
Annual GDP growth: 5.3% (2006)
GDP per capita: 2.440USD

GDP Distribution:
Primary Sector: 14.2%.
Secondary Sector: 30.8%.
Tertiary Sector: 55% (2002)

Access to drinking water: Urban: 100% / Rural: 96%


Bosnia and Herzegovina is a mountainous country. The Dinaric Alps make up the western border with Croatia, crossing the western and southern region of the country. Its highest peak is Maglic (2.387 m), on the border with Montenegro. The greatest part of the country lies on Karst, a dry landscape with depressions and spurs crossing the limestone bedrock. The major rivers of the country are Bosna, Sava, Drina and Neretva. At the north, the river valleys widen in the fertile plain of Sava, spreading over entire northern third of Bosnia. The north is covered with woods while the south has flatter topography with fertile ground, mostly used for agriculture. Bosnia and Herzegovina also has 20 km of Adriatic coast.


The Mediterranean climate prevails in the south, with sunny and warm summers and mild and rainy winters. On the contrary, the interior and the north of the country have the continental climate with warm summers and cold winters. At higher altitudes the summers are short and fresh while the winters are long and hard. The average temperature in Sarajevo, in the continental area, is scaling between –1ºC in January and 20ºC in July.

Natural resources

This is a country rich in natural resources, covered with large areas of farming land, extensive woods and valuable deposits of minerals such as magnesium, iron, lead, copper, chrome and carbon.